Volume 2, Issue 3, May 2014, Page: 33-40
Dynamic State of Water in Excised Ligustrum Lucidum Branches Observed by Dedicated Micro-Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Hiromi Kano, Oak-Hill Georgic Patch-Work Laboratory, Chiba, Japan
Mika Koizumi, Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan
Received: May 30, 2014;       Accepted: Jun. 18, 2014;       Published: Jun. 30, 2014
DOI: 10.11648/j.plant.20140203.12      View  3099      Downloads  100
Abstract
The dynamic state of water was investigated for tree branches by a combined k-space and q-space imaging method using a dedicated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) device equipped with a 1.0-T permanent magnet. Changes in the 1H-NMR image due to the application of pulsed-field gradients (PFG) of stepping magnitude were measured using a phantom consisting of flow water and stationary water; the relationship between the flow velocities and the diffusion coefficients of water was studied. The method was applied to excised Ligustrum lucidum branches under conditions with and without weak light (100-140 μmol m-2 s-1). The distributions and diffusion coefficients of cell-associated water for individual tissues in the branches were determined in relation to morphology. Large amounts of water existed but diffusion coefficients were not high in the cambium. Though the water amounts were moderate, the highest diffusion coefficient exceeded that for pure water in the secondary xylem. The conduit tubes were smaller than the imaging pixel, unlike the phantom, so the determined values might be perturbed by the conditions of the ambient cell-associated water. However, positional responses in the xylem flow to light were detected, and a flow velocity up to 0.71 mm s-1 by transpiration was recorded. The movement of water in the phloem was not distinguished from large amounts of water in adjacent tissues, probably due to the very small cells and slow rates of flow in the phloem.
Keywords
Dedicated MRI, Diffusion Coefficient, Flow-encoded Imaging, Ligustrum lucidum Branch, Morphology, Water State
To cite this article
Hiromi Kano, Mika Koizumi, Dynamic State of Water in Excised Ligustrum Lucidum Branches Observed by Dedicated Micro-Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Plant. Vol. 2, No. 3, 2014, pp. 33-40. doi: 10.11648/j.plant.20140203.12
Reference
[1]
M.T. Tyree, S. Patino, J. Bennink and J. Alexander, “Dy-namic measurements of root hydraulic conductance us-ing a high-pressure flowmeter in the laboratory and field.” Journal of Experimental. Botany, 1995. 46: 83-94.
[2]
A.D. Tomos and R.A. Leigh, “The pres-sure probe: a versatile tool in plant cell physiology.” Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, 1999. 50: 447-472.
[3]
T. Henzler, R.N. Wa-terhouse, A.J. Smyth, M. Carvajal, D.T. Cooke, A.R. Schäffner, E. Steudle and D.T. Clarkson, “Diurnal varia-tions in hydraulic conductivity and root pressure can be correlated with the expression of putative aquaporins in the roots of Lotus japonicus.” Planta, 1999. 210: 50-60.
[4]
D.M. Smith and S.J. Allen, “Measurement of sap flow in plant stems.” Journal of Experimental Botany, 1996. 47: 1833-1844.
[5]
H. Van As, “Intact plant MRI for the study of cell water relations, membrane permeability, cell-to-cell and long-distance water transport.” Journal of Experimental Botany, 2007. 58: 743-756.
[6]
H. Van As and J. van Duynhoven, “MRI of plants and foods.” Journal of Magnetic Resonance, 2013. 229: 25-34.
[7]
E. Kuchenbrod, M. Landeck, F. Thürmer, A. Haase and U. Zimmermann, “Measurement of water flow in the xylem vessels of intact maize plants using flow-sensitive NMR imaging.” Botanica Acta, 1996. 109: 184-186.
[8]
M. Rokitta, U. Zimmermann and A. Haase, “Fast NMR flow measurements in plants using FLASH imaging.” Journal of Magnetic Resonance, 1999. 137: 29-32.
[9]
P.T. Callaghan, “Principles of nuclear magnetic resonance microscopy.” 1991. Oxford Clarendon Press
[10]
Y. Xia, V. Sarafis, E.O. Campbell and P.T. Callaghan, “Non invasive imaging of water flow in plants by NMR microscopy.” Protoplasma, 1993.173: 170-176.
[11]
T.W.J. Scheenen, D. van Dusschoten, P.A. de Jager and H. Van As, “Microscopic displacement imaging with pulsed field gradient turbo spin-echo NMR.” Journal of Magnetic Resonance, 2000. 142: 207-215.
[12]
M. Koizumi, S. Naito, N. Ishida, T. Hai-shi and H. Kano, “A dedicated MRI for food science and agriculture.” Food Science and Technology Research, 2008. 14: 74-82.
[13]
E.O. Stejskal and J.E. Tanner, “Spin diffusion measurements: spin echoes in the pres-ence of a time-dependent field gradient.” The Journal of Chemical Physics, 1965. 42:288-292.
[14]
C.D. Eccles, P.T. Callaghan and C.F. Jenner, “Measurement of the self-diffusion coefficient of water as a function of posi-tion in wheat grain using nuclear magnetic resonance imaging.” Biophysical Journal, 1988. 53: 77-81.
[15]
N. Ishida, H. Ogawa and H. Kano, “Diffu-sion of cell-associated water in ripening barley seeds.” Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 1995. 13:745-751.
[16]
P.T. Callaghan, W. Köckenberger and J.M. Pope, “Use of difference propagators for imag-ing of capillary flow in the presence of stationary fluid.” Journal of Magnetic Resonance, Series B, 1994. 104: 183-188.
[17]
W. Köckenberger, J.M. Pope, Y. Xia, K.R. Jeffrey, E. Komor and P.T. Callaghan, “A non-invasive measurement of phloem and xylem water flow in castor bean seedlings by nuclear magnetic resonance micro-imaging.” Planta, 1997. 201: 53-63.
[18]
C.W. Windt, E. Gerkema and H. Van As, “Most water in the tomato truss is imported through the xylem, not the phloem: a nuclear magnetic resonance flow imaging study.” Plant Physiology, 2009. 151:830-842.
[19]
N. Ishida, M. Koizumi and H. Kano, “The NMR microscope: a unique and promising tool for plant science.” Annals of Botany, 2000. 86: 259-278.
[20]
C.W. Windt, F.J. Vergeldt, P.A. de Jager and H. Van As, “MRI of long-distance water transport: a comparison of the phloem and xylem flow characteristics and dynamics in poplar, castor bean, to-mato and tobacco.” Plant, Cell and Environment, 2006. 29: 1715-1729.
Browse journals by subject